Monthly Archives: Mar 2018

The top 5 enterprise blockchain platforms you need to know about

March 16, 2018 | Phil Fersht

Now most of you have finally realized that blockchain means something more than some weird disruptive currency you completely avoided buying when it could have netted you millions, we need to get much more familiar with the actual enterprise platforms being developed, where the true potential of this ledger technology can be unleashed on our enterprises, supply chains and industries.

So we asked our blockchain boffins Saurabh Gupta and Mayank Madhur to take a deeper look at the top 5, namely: Ethereum, Hyperledger Fabric, R3 Corda, Ripple, and Quorum. Please note that Bitcoin does not make it to our list of top 5 platforms. In fact, it does not make the top 10 list when we talk about enterprise application of Blockchain. 

The objective of our research is to understand blockchain platforms that show promise in solving complex business problems:

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#1. Ethereum. Mature Smart Contracting Cross-Industry Platform

“Ethereum is a platform that makes it possible for any developer to write and distribute next-generation decentralized applications.”

-          Vitalik Buterin, Co-Founder, Ethereum

Founded by the 22 year old Russian-Canadian Vitalk Buterin, Ethereum is one of the most mature blockchain platforms available today. Known for its robust smart contracting functionality and flexibility, it is used widely across multiple industry use-cases. It has the largest number of use-cases available today (50%+ in our sample set). Along with Hyperledger Fabric, Ethereum has developed a large online support community as well has frequent product updates and enhancements.

The Ethereum Enterprise Alliance (EEA), a non-profit organization is now over 250+ members strong and connects Fortune 500 enterprises, startups, academics, and technology vendors with Ethereum subject matter experts. Despite its widespread adoption in enterprise use-cases, it’s important to realize that Ethereum is essentially a permissionless (or public) platform that is designed for mass consumption versus restricted access (typical requirement for privacy requirements in enterprise use-cases). It is also PoW (proof-of-work) based which is not the fastest (resulting in potential latency issues) and is an energy-sucker. Though it might change its consensus algorithm to the fast PoS (proof-of-stake) in future versions.

#2. Hyperledger Fabric. B2B-focused Modular Blockchain Platform

“As new technology develops, there is a call for standards. Participants want to focus on time and effort and investment to build solutions versus worrying about the framework. This is the rationale for open standards…we are pulling together the most exciting portfolio with a multi-

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Posted in: Blockchain



Farewell the Godfather of Time...

March 14, 2018 | Phil Fersht

Posted in: Cognitive Computing



RPA is officially the shiny new silver bullet: 53% of the Global 2000 are planning significant RPA investments to slash costs in 2018

March 11, 2018 | Phil Fersht

While we were discussing the confusing realities of the RPA hype at the HfS FORA Summit, we got a sneak preview of the interim data from the 2018 State of Operations and Outsourcing Study, conducted in conjunction with KPMG, where 250 interviews with Global 2000 operations leaders have now been completed. 

We asked them where their investment priorities were currently lying when it comes to 2018 cost reduction:

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So it's abundantly clear all the hype about rampant adoption has been warranted, and we can hang our hats on our recent enterprise robotics software and services forecast, which now appears conservative, increasing with 47% growth to $1.46bn this year (click here for full forecast):

The Bottom-line: RPA has succeeded in being positioned as the "easiest silver bullet to target that next wave of cost take-out".  Now let the real fun and games begin...

We have discussed, argued and deliberated the true value, impact and effective ways to run RPA software for many, many hours here on HfS... for over five and a half years.  And you only need to read our recent work to conclude that "RPA often starts out like a teenage romance, with a lot of enthusiastic fumbling around that ends quickly, frequently leading to disappointment".  And you can also read the RPA Bible, which preaches best and worst RPA practices to such an extent, you'll need to visit your local RPA Rabbi, Bhikkhu, Priest or Mullah to find your soul again.

The real issue, here, is that the majority of enterprises are taking the plunge and investing the dollars, with 81% actually taking RPA seriously, and 53% very seriously.  So what's going to happen in a few months when those ambitious CIOs and CFOs ask to see real, tangible demonstrations of the resultant cost takeout?  Can C-Suite leaders quickly learn to love metrics that are tied to growth, value and effectiveness, as opposed to a simple reduction in operating expenses to feel rewarded for those expensive bot licenses? Are operations leaders generally going to be ready to quantify the value effectively?  Can they really convince their superiors that there is true value impact beyond merely offering up headcount elimination? 

What's more, what if headcount reductions were promised to offset investments, and adopters have failed to free up the workload that can enable them?  And can they reward the staff, who cooperated in the automation work, by getting them "retrained"?  Is there really a plan?  While the "one human to oversee every 10 bots" is becoming the latest robo-governance rule-of-thumb, how real is this?  Or are we just all bull*****g ourselves about the future, and merely circling the hype to stay relevant today?  Do we really care about our companies anymore, or are we more obsessed with adding big sexy initiatives to our CVs?  Is this really anything different to yesteryear, where you needed to have an SAP rollout on your CV to be a credible CIO, or oversaw a 1000 FTE outsourcing deal to prove you were worth that $1.2m/ year GBS salary (yes, that's what some get...).  In this world of #fakenews, does anything really matter anymore, when we can spin our realities into whatever shiny new thing is out there?  

One thing is clear is that the back office needs to be submerged into the value end of the organization.  There is little more headcount elimination to be had for most companies - sure, there are still many areas that have too many people working on too few valuable tasks, and technologies like RPA are terrific tools for breathing new life into legacy systems and creating digital process flows, where before there was only spaghetti code, manual workarounds and swamps of data polluting the corporate underbelly.

One thing is clear, it's very murky out there, and all we can really do is hatch a semi-realistic plan and try and stay on top of it as the future unravels in front of us...

Posted in: Robotic Process Automation



Findings from #HfSFORA: Half of firms' staff will be impacted by automation and 40% of them have no idea what to do with them

March 07, 2018 | Phil Fersht

So here's the biggest issue facing enterprise operations in the next couple of years:  what to do with staff impacted by automation.  Our brand new 2018 State of Operations study, conducted with KPMG, over half the Global 2000 firms surveyed believe transactional roles will be significantly impacted by automation within just a two-year timeframe:

So we thought we'd poll the 120 buyers at the new York FORA summit this morning as we asked them what they intended to do with their impacted staff:

While a good portion are already thinking about "retraining" their impacted staff to take on analytics work (21%) and help manage new tech such as RPA and ML (16%), the vast majority (40%) are just honest and reveal they just don't know.  

Bottom-line:  We have to plan for automation better

As automation fever takes over business operations (and we'll reveal that data next), my one plea to industry is to plan this better.  CFOs and CIOs investing $ millions in bot licenses and consultants to implement them will be expecting a return on their investment, and if operations leaders do not have a concerted plan to use the freed up man hours, you can be sure there will be intense pressure to reduce even more heads than may have been in the initial plan.

Posted in: Robotic Process Automation



Meet the Business Romantic: Tim Leberecht

March 01, 2018 | Phil Fersht

Have you ever mixed business with romance?  Oh dear, that could be taken the wrong way, but our keynote speaker next week at the HfS FORA summit New York, Tim Leberecht, has literally written the book on the subject.  Tim's session next week is one that will breathe new energy into our narrative, and the title "How to Thrive in the Robotic Age Without Losing Your Humanity" just about says it all!

So let's hear a bit more from Tim about why he's such a sought-after speaker and visionary on the future of work and the impact of AI...

Phil Fersht (CEO, HfS): Tim, we're very excited to have you as one of our keynotes in New York.  So maybe you can give us some insight into how you have become a "Business Romantic.”

Tim Leberecht (Founder of The Business Romantic Society): Education-wise, my background is in the humanities and professionally, in marketing. Initially, I set out to write a book about meaning, and specifically the power of brands to serve as one of the few remaining arbiters of meaning in our societies. As I was looking into the principles of meaning-making, I realized that they were all, in effect, romantic principles: keep the mystique, foster intimacy, embrace solitude, seek adventure, suffer (a little), and so on. I had this epiphany: “Wow, I am a romantic!” In fact, I realized that romance had been the defining quality of my career—I just hadn’t been able to articulate it. The term “Business Romantic” nailed the tension I had felt all my professional life, and since the book came out in 2015, it has proven to be provocative and fruitful. Opposites attract, or as one of the interviewees for my book said: juxtaposing opposite poles make each of the poles more attractive. I haven’t met anybody yet who hasn’t had a strong reaction to the word “romance:” people either oppose it or aspire to it.

Phil: So the theme of the conference is "Learning to Change in the robotic era"... what's your view on how we humans must adapt with all the technological change occurring? Is it more about attitudes that skillsets?  

Tim: It’s both, Phil. There are some grim reports out there, such as Bain’s recent study that predicts 30 percent of all US jobs will be automated by 2030, with the rewards of automation going mostly to the top 20 percent of earners or savvy AI investors. McKinsey estimates that 30 percent of 60 percent of all tasks in existing jobs can already be automated. Futurist Gerd Leonhard proclaims that “if you can describe your job in one sentence, chances are you might get automated,” referring to the high likelihood of process-oriented, linear, routine-based work being automated.

Entire professions will feel the consequences: not only factory workers or call-center agents but also legal research assistants, accountants, notaries, investment managers, or management consultants. While exact estimates are still disputed, clearly, massive changes to work and society are underway, and we are just beginning to grasp them. AI will dramatically alter both process and offerings in almost every industry. Every profession will have to evolve and embed AI and robotics in their processes.  AI and co-bots will become our new co-workers, and those parts of our work that can be done more efficiently will be taken over by them. Many of us will lose traditional employment, the rest of us will have to get used to hybrid work environments and collaborating with AI (and perhaps even having AI’s as bosses).

We’re definitely in a race with the machines, and it’s not one we can win unless we remind ourselves of our inherently human qualities that AI isn’t able to emulate yet: vulnerability, imagination, and character. We are elusive, inconsistent, elastic, and often erratic beings—we remain unpredictable and can change our beliefs and emotions. That makes us hard to deal with but also constitutes the very engine of progress. It’s not technology, it is our changing hearts and minds, our ever-evolving values, that is the source of innovation.

We will need to acquire not only new technical skills, but also new emotional ones, as we’ll be facing an increasing loss of control, of agency in the traditional sense. Deloitte says that 63 percent of businesses need leadership skill development for the digital future, and that many of these skills are “soft skills.” Our identities and interactions will become more fluid, as boundaries between man and machine, internal and external reality, digital and physical world continue to blur. To thrive in this age of machines, we will have to learn (again) to appreciate beautiful work and how to our work beautifully—with heart, character, and intuition. This what romanticism can teach us.

Phil: And what's your view of this "singularity"?  Is it real, Tim, or just hype?  What is the real pace of change and disruption, as you see it?

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Posted in: Analytics and Big DataCognitive Computing



It's an automation slaughter with Lee Coulter

February 27, 2018 | Phil Fersht

Lee Coulter: One big automation fish...

One character who will light up our New York HfS FORA Summit next week (and not just with a cigar) is the irrepressible Lee Coulter.  While Lee could have hung his hat on leadership roles at GE, Kraft and Ascension Health (where he still oversees their shared services as his day job), he has taken it upon himself to become one of the leading voices behind the Intelligent Process Automation (IPA) movement, as Chair of the IEEE's working standards group on IPA and Founder of Agilify, a newly launched automation services business, already boasting 32 clients. 

With so much going on in Lee's world, I thought it high time to catch up with him before we hear his dulcet tones next week... 

Phil Fersht, CEO and Chief Analyst, HfS Research: You've been the self-styled Godfather of Intelligent Process Automation, brandishing a cigar, as opposed to a Kalashnikov... why did you take on this mantel, how did this evolve during your recent years with Ascension into this new firm, "Agilify"?

Lee Coulter,  CEO, Ascension: That’s quite an image. I think my role chairing the IEEE Working Group on Standards in Intelligent Process Automation was probably what did it. We started over five years ago on our automation journey. The hype and confusion was literally driving me batty. So instead of getting into a war of words, I decided the best answer was to get the competitors to not want to be left out of a standards effort. It was in everyone’s best interest to work together. That first standard (IEEE 2755-2017) was really a hallmark and the next one (P2755.1), coming this year, will have a far greater impact. That work has created great relationships across the continuum that have been helpful in bringing automation to Ascension.

The idea for Agilify came about during a conversation with a GBS colleague when he wanted to bring his team on site for a third full day to meet with my team. I told him, “Hey, I think you’ve

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Posted in: Robotic Process Automation



#NASSCOM_ILF 2018: An industry stuck in #fakenews limbo, desperately needing to change the channel

February 22, 2018 | Phil Fersht

Stability and modest growth should be the best thing that has happened to this industry:  companies can plan for the future with greater predictability and make smarter investment decisions.  Instead, we’re suffering from a culture of endless hype, copycat marketing and an addiction to hypergrowth. 

NASSCOM’s annual India Leadership Forum is always a good bellwether for testing the temperature of the global services industry – and the 2018 rendition this week in Hyderabad served up some real pearls of wisdom (yes, Hyderabad is the world’s leading refiner of pearls).

Getting to the point, the services industry has never found itself in a worse state of bewilderment and confusion.  After last year’s sense of looming disaster with President Trump’s proposed Visa reforms, at least the industry has something collective to hang onto – a common fear of being politicked out of business.  However, with that panic pretty much diluted, what has been left is a conflicting range of moods, ranging from confusion to depression to uncomfortable modest growth, alarmingly untrue #fakenews, and a never-ending plethora of meaningless buzz words, which have become so deepset in the fabric of our industry, most of us are resigned to using them, as it’s the only language left to communicate basic sentences to each other.

So let’s try and shed some light on the confusion, based on some of the terrific conversations we had this week:

The Indian IT industry is struggling to cope with “modest growth”.  With NASSCOM bravely predicting something in the 7-9% range, most credible analysts are predicting 4-5% for the short, medium and long-term.  The reality is, the whole DNA of Indian IT has been borne out of hyper-growth, offering genuine riches to ambitious executives who could project-manage their way to a very nice condo in Bangalore or Gurgaon.  The gravy train has now firmly ground to a halt, and most of the lovely folks remaining are still coming to terms with their salary increases slowing down, or disappearing altogether.  And many are just pleased to cling to their jobs. The level-headed executives have accepted they are now looking at a more modest outlook for their firms and their own futures, and are making some adjustments, while others are still clambering around trying to find the next hype bandwagon to hitch to their next career move (and payrise).  Did I hear the words AI, Blockchain, or RPA anyone?

“Digital” provides a sugar frosting for restating revenues as something that is not traditional IT.  While we managed to have about 30 structured meetings with service providers, GICs and tech firms, the term “digital” has become so meaningless, it now ceases to be used in any coherent sentence. It seems to be purely a term now for convincing investors and Wall St analysts that, somehow, traditional services revenues have become something mysterious and new that will set services firms on a new pathway to returning to hypergrowth… and very soon. In reality, "digital" is all about designing new revenue channels for customers using emerging interactive technologies.  It’s all about collapsing internal silos within business operations to service customers’ emerging digital needs.  If you’re telling me that 50-75% of IT services revenues are now “digital”, then please tell me where all the billions of dollars of app testing, app management and IT infra revenues mysteriously disappeared? 

Services has fallen hook, line and sinker for its own #fakenews.  Suddenly, every services provider has developed the industry’s leading competency for delivering automation, artificial intelligence and blockchain… overnight.  While, barely a year ago, exactly the same firms were the industry’s leading maestros at serving up “digital transformation”.  Amazing how they could source thousands of experts, and convince so many clients to make this all possible in barely a few months.  Until recently, most providers declared they were adopting a “wait and see” attitude to approaching some of these areas, but now are in there fully-fledged and firing on all their lovely blockchain cylinders.  Puhlease ladies and gents!  At least, in days gone by, most providers would be relatively honest about their core areas of focus and expertise.  Now it seems perfectly acceptable for many just to stare you in the eyes and just lie… what on earth has driven us to this place?

DXC continues to baffle everyone.  Can someone please explain what DXC is supposed to be doing?  I love the Accenture-esque TV ads, but I am still clueless as to what this firm is actually doing to be the next big thing in the industry.  While I was very happy with the DXC branded gifts for writing notes and charging my phones, I would rather just get a little postcard explaining what on earth this new-fangled services business is supposed to be doing that is so special…

Sourcing advisors have just fallen off a cliff.  Yeah – they just weren’t present.  Barely a couple of years ago they still trawled these halls with their promises of big deals (or would try and sell you some “research” to make a few bucks).  Now they have all but disappeared from the equation.  Maybe their absence is the most notable sign that the good ol’ days are firmly gone forever, and it’s high-time to wake up to something approaching a normal, stable industry?

The Bottom-line: There are some seriously cool things going in in the world of technology services; we just need to unearth them and change the narrative

There is a lot of goodness this industry is capable of achieving if we can just get out of our own way.

For starters, we're seeing the fastest revenue growth from several middle-tier providers who are big enough to go after some large complex deals, small enough to work on new concepts with clients and lack the legacy business to focus on going after greenfield disruptive opportunities that the big guys cannot consider.  We are seeing some of the major providers unearth new gold by taking ambitious clients to new places of business value, with a high-risk / high value mindset, using technology that is here today and working with them as a trusted long-term partner.  We’re seeing real advances in automation, machine learning and digital enablement that are here today – they are now a reality, not some future innovation that is still some years away.  We are also seeing a feverish desire from many clients to experiment with blockchain, despite the fact it’s still a long way from providing many meaningful business applications today. 

The present is now the future and this should be the most exciting time ever to be innovative, courageous and entrepreneurial.  So let’s stop trying to pretend to be something we’re not and focus on the real potential that is staring us in the face.  Everyone’s tired of the #fakenews… it’s time to change the channel!

Posted in: Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)IT Outsourcing / IT Services



There's no FTE hell with Chris Caldwell

February 19, 2018 | Phil Fersht

The good old customer BPO business has taken quite a battering in recent years, where the same old usual suspects have embarked on selling predominantly the same old voice services, with most choosing to compete with ever-cheaper global locations to prop up their fragile profit margins. While many of the services majors have chosen to steer clear (or quietly exit the market), the importance of creating an amazing customer experience has never been so critical to customer-facing businesses.  Something has gone sorely wrong here...

In an era where every firm aims to be "digital" (and has a Chief Digital Officer to boot), the focus on engaging customers with both digital and voice communications has taken center stage... yet, these legacy call center practices continue to hound the services industry as most of the call center firms continue to fight it out to the lowest common denominator: who can delivery average customer service as cheaply as possible?  But you can't just blame the service providers alone for this behaviour:  many of the FORTUNE 500 propagate this behaviour by playing everyone off to squeeze every last drop of cost (and subsequently value) out of their delivery capability... preferring to talk a big digital customer experience game than truly investing in one.  

One leader in the space who has taken it upon himself to declare war on these legacy practices is Concentrix President Chris Caldwell, who has masterminded the impressive growth of the firm over the last 12 years, which has included some major acquisitions, notably, the IBM contact center business, BPO firm Minacs and the Australian digital outfit, Tigerspike.  The company today boasts annual revenues greater than $2bn with over 100,000 employees globally.  Having observed this rapid rise, I thought it high time to invite Chris on here to share a bit more about his story and his views on why this industry needn't be an FTE hell any longer...

Phil Fersht, CEO and Chief Analyst, HfS Research: Good morning Chris. It's great to finally get you here on HfS. I would love to hear about your journey on how you wound up running the Concentrix business.

Chris Caldwell, President, Concentrix Corporation: Of course, Phil, It's bit of an interesting story. I’m not sure if anyone starts out saying that they are going into a career to beat your business, or a call center business. But I worked for a parent company, SYNNEX where I was looking after M&A and the diversification of their business model from the core distribution business. One of the businesses that we bought, very small at the time, was a BPO business, about 30 people which was barely doing over $1m a year and had begun to lose money after some time. And my boss who was the CEO of the other company, said to me, 'you bought it, you fix it.' That was the start of the BPO business and that's when I took over Concentrix at the time. I then had to learn the call center business very quickly; figure out how to grow it and do something with it, which happened in approximately 2005.

Phil: Chris, you then went through this much, much larger acquisition of the IBM call center business in 2013. Can you talk a bit about how Concentrix got to that point, the relationship with SYNNEX, and how things have really progressed since you made that major acquisition?

Chris: Sure, It’s interesting. When we originally invested in Concentrix it was to provide additional services to SYNNEX vendors. SYNNEX is an IT distributor and I can still remember

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Posted in: Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)CRM and MarketingDigital Transformation



The digital worker survival guide: it's much more about attitude than skills

February 12, 2018 | Phil Fersht

Yes, people, as we inch towards the dreaded singularity, we will continue to be bored silly with arrogant diatribes describing how “humans can stay relevant”.

Do we really need to hear this daily splurge of pontifications from business leaders in Davos about reskilling the workforce, without any real practical advice on what that reskilling is?  I would argue this is more about culture and attitude, than training students to learn new programming languages and data analyst skills. The latter will come naturally as the needs of the workplace change, my view is that it’s the former which poses the real challenge: how can we enlighten people to change their working attitudes to make them much more valuable and irreplaceable to their employers?  Anyone can fix a line of code within hours, or slam in some new software, it’s what you actually do with the tech that really counts. 

It's what you do when your boss isn't looking, that makes you less predictable and more valuable 

It’s not just about performing predictable tasks, it’s also about helping your firm devise new ways of doing things – that is the magic that makes staff valued.  The truth is the singularity is

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Posted in: Design ThinkingDigital TransformationSourcing Change Management



Automation to impact 750,000 low skilled Indian jobs, but create 300,000 mid-high skilled jobs by 2022

February 03, 2018 | Phil FershtJamie Snowdon

A lot has changed in the last year... especially when it comes to automation: it has now become the broadly-accepted efficiency tool for cost leverage with operations.

Every customer has RPA project managers and automation leads hungry for data, advice, and ideas. Every service provider has RPA embedded into their service delivery models, and every credible advisor has a practice that is working with multiple clients to make this happen. The Armageddon days of talking about robots taking our jobs are over - these are now the reality days where we can see exactly what's going on with automation and AI, and accurately estimate how it's going to impact the services industry in the next few years.

There will be impact, but it's manageable provided we focus on new skills and value.  

In short, the global IT and BPO services industry employs 16 million workers today.  By 2022, our industry will employ 14.8 million - a likely decrease of 7.5%* in total workers (see our research methodology below).  This isn't devastating news - we'll lose this many people through natural attrition, but what this data signifies is this industry is now delivering more for less because of advantages in automation and artificial intelligence.  The new data also shows how job roles are evolving from low skilled workers conducting simple entry level, process driven tasks that require little abstract thinking or autonomy, to medium and high skilled workers undertaking more complicated tasks that require experience, expertise, abstract thinking, ability to manage machine-learning tools and autonomy.

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The low skill routine jobs are getting increasingly impacted, and our new demand data shows an acceleration in RPA tools (a 60% increase over the next year) where service providers are the largest adopters into their own service delivery organizations.  We expect to see a more rapid impact on routine job roles which is most notable in 2022 as companies take time to build the impact of RPA into service contracts and figure out how to turn work elimination into hard savings than merely soft efficiency savings.  With barely a 50% satisfaction level, this will take 4-5 years to see the real cost benefits in terms of job elimination.  Most of the short-medium term benefits are being seen in increased efficiencies and more digital process workflows.  All major service delivery locations are expected to be impacted at the low-end, but the higher the wage costs, the higher the expected role elimination (750,000 roles in India and a similar number in the US):

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Medium skilled roles are picking up across the board, especially in roles that are customer/employee facing with the need for more customized support, the ability to handle

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Posted in: Cognitive ComputingRobotic Process Automation



No longer that great? The USA’s stagnation is spurring genuine global innovation, with data and AI at the core

January 31, 2018 | Phil Fersht

Having spent the last 15 years of my life in the US before recently returning to my British homeland to focus on the global expansion of HfS, I think I have earned the right to offer a view on how global innovation will evolve in the coming years. So let's have a real State of the Union look into global battle for economic and digital supremacy.

For decades now, Silicon Valley has driven technology innovation, US corporates dominated business innovation, and US healthcare was the paragon of high-quality patient care. Everyone looked to the US for innovation, leadership and entrepreneurship.  Hell, there was nowhere else in the world I could have founded and made HfS a success eight years’ ago… people in the UK used to sneer at new brands, ideas and anything that cut against the legacy business establishment. But Americans liked shiny new things, they embraced entrepreneurship and new ideas, and welcomed foreign talent.  The US was the world’s innovator, the world’s entrepreneur… it was the place where ambitious people aspired to flourish.  All good things happened in America – it’s where dreams were hatched and made real.

Fast-forward to present day and all this is changing before our eyes

Tech innovation is no longer confined to a politically exhausted, entitled and overpriced Silicon Valley.  Israel is becoming a leading hub for security, blockchain and AI start-ups and talent.  India’s startup scene is especially vibrant as ambitious IT talent grows frustrated with the monolithic outsourcers and seeks to join emerging tech firms and get involved with AI development environments such as Python, R, Caffe, Google TensorFlow, the Azure ML Workbench, Amazon's Sagemaker etc. In China, real cooperation between the government and its tech giants is significantly positioning the country’s advancements as an AI leader.  Meanwhile, Estonia is already putting its entire population database on a blockchain platform as part of its plans to build a digital nation, and even Dubai is declaring it will be a Blockchain city run by smart contracts by 2020.

The abhorrent cost of talent in Silicon Valley, coupled with the extremely negative politics

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Posted in: Analytics and Big DataSourcing LocationsPolicy and Regulations



No time to get TWITCHy... but which providers are ready to bounce back?

January 27, 2018 | Phil FershtJamie SnowdonOllie O’Donoghue

Knowing full and well that predictions can bite you on the arse isn’t going to stop us making them! Particularly when the financial reports pour in from some of the biggest movers and shakers in the services industry confirm what we are thinking.

What do we know now?

Unlike the Trump-esque games of ‘I told you so’, we’re not going to pass off something everyone knows already as a prediction (and then immediately congratulate ourselves on doing such a good job at getting a prediction bang on the money).

First up, we need to talk about what we already know; most of the big providers have already posted their results and they make for interesting - and upbeat - reading.

Let’s start by taking the TWITCH providers (Tech Mahindra, Wipro, Infosys, TCS, Cognizant, and HCL). By now, all of these providers, barring Cognizant and Tech Mahindra, have submitted their financial reports for Q4 2017. This gives us a decent picture of the state of the market in general—a topic tackled in greater detail in our latest 2018 market primer—but, suffice it to say, we are starting to look at the IT services market more optimistically - for the first time in years. Our expectations that all of the major providers would report reasonable growth figures have largely been met, a sure sign of the market finally reaching the tipping point. In short, we’re leaving behind much of the turmoil-ridden restructuring of the market from traditional and legacy services to the as-a-service and digital models enterprises now consume with increasingly insatiable appetites.

TWITCH is the winner?

Even so, there are winners and losers, and the pick up in market growth is not shared equally. Wipro, for example, is bucking the trend somewhat by reporting weaker growth than its contemporaries. Similarly, TCS is pushing a more consistent growth line, but the increase of a few percentage points doesn’t quite match the considerable spike other providers are seeing.

HCL’s continued growth has come as somewhat of a surprise to us. While the firm has a strong track-record as an IT services major, there were expectations that the emergence of increased digital uptake would leave the firm struggling to mirror its rivals. Central to this thinking is the fact that the firm has acquired digital capabilities less voraciously than some of its peers, and many of the larger acquisitions, such as Volvo IT, are now mature enough that we would not expect to see them contribute enormously to revenue growth. However, HCL’s continued growth

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Posted in: IT Outsourcing / IT Services



Has the IT services biz reached its tipping point as the Digital OneOffice emerges?

January 19, 2018 | Phil Fersht

Surely not, folks... but did the flagging IT services business finally find rock bottom... and we're now working our way back to something resembling (gasp) growth

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According to our latest market size and forecast, Q3 2017 showed real signs of genuine improvement in the services business. It is consistent with the gradual upward trend we've been monitoring over the past 8 quarters (with the exception of Q4 2016), when the market dipped due to concerns around Brexit and Trump. We've been observing an increasingly significant number of Digital OneOffice type deals, and it seems we may have finally reached an inflection point where these “OneOffice style” engagements are driving more growth than the legacy is sucking out of the market.  

How we define OneOffice IT Services

The OneOffice framework is all about collapsing the barriers between front and back office to create OneOffice with unified outcomes, centered around customer impact.  OneOffice IT supports this framework. As such, OneOffice IT Services is split into two main components – operational services and professional services:


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i) Managed / Operational OneOffice IT Services

The difference between traditional operational services and OneOffice operational services is the business model of the services itself and the manner in which the service is delivered. Operational OneOffice services can include both application management and IT Infrastructure focused services. OneOffice services use an evolved service delivery model that shifts the business model towards outcome realization and consumption, so would include hybrid and

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Posted in: Cloud ComputingDigital TransformationIT Outsourcing / IT Services



RPA often starts out like a teenage romance: a lot of enthusiastic fumbling around that ends quickly, frequently leading to disappointment

January 12, 2018 | Phil Fersht

Yes, folks, that was one of the key takeaways one of the delegates pointed out at the FORA Summit in London last month, where a very mature conversation took place about the real future of operations in this lovely robotic age (download your full copy here). 

This packed-out event was attended by 120 senior executives, the majority being senior buyside enterprise clients, joined by the CEOs of the leading automation solutions vendors, practice leaders across the leading service providers and global advisors. and the HfS analyst team.  This was a chance to get beyond that deluge of wooden marketing and sales hype that is murdering our sanity… and get to the real nub of the of the issues plaguing a confused – and fumbling – industry.

Ten Big Takeaways from the Discussions

1. RPA needs to move beyond the teenage romance stage. One delegate pointed out that RPA often started out like a teenage romance – a lot of fumbling around with enthusiasm that ends quickly, often leading to disappointment. Past events have focused on the importance of change management to the process, however, our recent study of 400 automation buyers shows that a lack of clarity around the business case is the major barrier to RPA adoption (change management rears its head after all the fun and games of implementing the software):

2. RPA hype is over and it's nearing time to retire the term in favor of Digital Operations and the emerging Digital Workforce. Hype needs to move from replacement to enablement. The benefit of automation and AI are not reducing the workforce, but enabling machine to human and human to machine interaction. Helping enterprises and governments make better decisions with data. Building a more virtuous cycle with automation, decision making and data.

3. The Pace of Change Cannot Be Slowed – If You Aren’t Disrupting You Aren’t Surviving. Companies that view disruption as an opportunity and are not complacent are the most successful. Paranoia about the world ahead is your friend – driving staff to innovate and

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Posted in: Robotic Process Automation



How the Blockchain Six-Pack is changing how we think about business transactions, storing data and new revenue models

January 06, 2018 | Phil Fersht

Our Chief Strategy officer, Saurabh Gupta has been pioneering new research and vision across distributed ledgers, blockchain and smart contracts.  In his latest POV, entitled "The Blockchain Reality Check. Where are we, and what can we expect in 2018?" Saurabh dives into what we describe as "Blockchain Six-Pack", which describes six built-in features of blockchains that manifest into a disruptive potential over the long run for enterprises, when leveraged intelligently in relevant business use-cases. Net-net, the Blockchain Six-Pack is changing the way we think about business transactions, data storage, and even industry value chains and associated revenue models:

  1. Distributed shared data over Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network reduces single points of failiure. The most fundamental difference between DLT and the way we store data today, is that Distributed Ledgers do not have a central administrator. A distributed ledger is replicated, shared, and synchronized digital data geographically spread across multiple sites, countries, or institutions. This allows information to be available across the network in a fully transparent and autonomous way, reducing single points of failure and enabling far better collaboration.
  2. Consensus-driven trust cuts out the middle-man. In blockchains, there is no need to trust the middle-man as you don’t have one. Trust is driven by consensus algorithms such as proof-of-work (PoW) or Proof-of-Stake (PoS) or some variation of these. As a result, we don’t need to worry about unreliable, inaccurate, dishonest or overpriced intermediaries.
  3. Immutable transactions ensure trust. Each block in a blockchain contains a timestamp and a link to a previous block. By definition, blockchains are inherently resistant to modification of the data. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks and a collusion of the network majority creating a single source of truth.
  4. Hashing-based data ensures integrity and security. All records are individually encrypted. Blockchains use cryptographic hash codes to verify data that drives up integrity and creates strong resilience to cyber-security concerns
  5. Automated smart contracts promote touchless interactions across process chains. Several blockchains also offer ‘Smart Contract’ functionality. These are computer protocols that facilitate, verify, or enforce the negotiation or performance of a contract, or that obviate the need for a contractual clause. This allows contracts to auto-execute based on pre-set conditions or triggers and allows for much higher levels of straight-through It can even allow the millions of IoT devices to work autonomously
  6. Permissioned and permission-less flavors give enterprise users flexibility. Much like public and private clouds, blockchains can be private (permissioned), public (permission-less), or somewhere in between (hybrid). These flavors give enterprises the flexibility to choose their solution based on their needs and preferences. Permissioned blockchains enhance privacy and take less computational power (so have higher throughput) but lack the Utopian trust that permissionless blockchains, such as Bitcoin, can bring.

Blockchain’s inherent features give it the potential to drive new touchless business models and disrupt existing ones by removing the need for intermediaries in the long-run.  This results in significant increases in the speed, security and reliability of executive processes, transactions and interactions on both micro and macro scales.  The potential is enormous, provided blockchains are adopted, sensibly regulated and executed effectively. However, HfS expects a five to seven-year horizon for blockchain to delivery fully, given the nascency of the technology and associated challenges.  In addition, media hype and fake news, in addition to negative activity from threatened legacy stakeholders and other economic impacts, could impede adoption.

What can we expect from blockchain in 2018?

In the near term, we do expect blockchain initiatives to drive significant business impact and create a frenzy of excitement as ambitious businesses jump on the potential of new technology developments like never before. Use-cases around traceability through provenance and asset tracking, digitization of contracts leading to faster settlements, management of private data and digital identity will drive significant efficiency and effectiveness gains in existing business models. Blockchain can also become a source of competitive differentiation in the medium term by re-imagining IT infrastructure that is shared and decentralized, re-defining transaction management that is transparent and immutable and driving additional trust in multi-party collaboration. 

We might not see the true disruptive potential of blockchains over the next 12-18 months, but we will see it become much more than a conversation topic with several use-cases that are generating tremendous business value for its constituents. And let’s not discount the levels of hype that tend to drive our industry in new directions, especially when the tech works.  While digital, AI and automation have been the flavors of 2017, blockchain is gearing up to lead the hype in 2018, as enterprise leaders search for new levels of value that have genuine, proven business applications.  

So don’t sit back and assume that the world is not changing, because very soon this funnel is going to flip. Go ahead and investigate blockchain!  

HfS subscribers can click here to download our new POV: "The Blockchain Reality Check. Where are we, and what can we expect in 2018?"

Posted in: Security and Risk Mgmt.



Ready to Learn to Change in New York this March?

January 04, 2018 | Phil Fersht

Dear Friends - it's time to push the biggest events button in 2018!

Oh yes... we're excited to trigger the first nuclear tranche of speakers for the Future of Operations in the Robotic Age (FORA) Summit in New York, March 7-8.  The summit will span the entire two days with the theme "Learning to Change" rocketing the conversation.

The tech is here and is being proven, but are we really, truly ready to disrupt our underlying corporate DNA to exploit it to its full potential? Can we really change how we operate, think, collaborate and focus to embrace the new wave of data-driven transformation that is engulfing us? In true ballistic HfS style, we are bringing together some of the finest minds from enterprise buyers, academia, technology and BPM services to share how change can be realized - and how to venture outside of our comfort zone to get there. As always, this is a non-salesy sharing of best practices and research between the key industry stakeholders.  No cardboard cutouts, plastic booths or dodgy salesmen... honest!  

Do apply here to save your seat is limited and filling up fast.  Let's push some great big buttons, people...

Apply here to save your seat 

Posted in: Analytics and Big DataBusiness Process Outsourcing (BPO)Buyers' Sourcing Best Practices



2018: Why the full-time job will never be so precious, as the gig economy crumbles and judgment work is digitized

January 01, 2018 | Phil Fersht

The new “rules” of the workplace are being defined as computers are frantically being programmed to take the lead in the workplace, when it comes to judgment and intuition. We humans need to be the idea generators, the motivators, the negotiators, and the trouble-shooters to fix computer errors, if we want to govern our emerging digital environments. In short, we need to get closer to our firms, be more tightly integrated and intimate with work performance than ever before… which means the role and tenure of the much-derided middle-manager in the Dilbert Cartoons could be taking on a whole new potential twist - and a whole new (potential) level of relevance.

I would go as far as declaring 2018 as a new beginning of the value of the full-time employee – where alignment with the mission, spirit, culture, energy and context of an organization has never been so important.  We are seeing the value of contract work diminish as so much “outsource-able” work is so much easier to automate and global labor drives down the cost of getting things done quickly and easily.  Business success is more about investing in the core than ever - and that core includes the people who are the true pieces of human middleware to hold everything together.

The onus is circling back to the value of being a full-time employee, who needs to value the fruits of having a predictable income and adapt to the changing balance of how humans need to work with computers.

Remember when the rise of the gig worker was supposed to revamp how so many of us worked, as we escaped the shackles of the “evil employer”?

Almost two decades ago, the internet was creating the independent worker, as exemplified in Dan Pink’s timeless bookFree Agent Nation: How America’s New Independent Workers are Transforming the Way We Live” became the seminal guide for what is now known as the “gig worker”.

Furthermore, unless recent research from McKinsey of 8000 workers can now be categorized as fake news, 162 million people in Europe and the United States—or 20 to 30 percent of the working-age population—engage in some form of independent work today. And a recent study from freelance site Upwork (which undoubtedly wants to hype the impact of gig world) cranks up the numbers even further, claiming that a staggering 50% of US millennials are already freelancing, before declaring the freelance sector will comprise the majority of the US workforce within a decade.  Wow.

So are the days of being gainfully employed really disintegrating before our very eyes?  Or is the gig hype beginning to atrophy for many people?

The gig economy is becoming a tough place to craft a living if many of the new reports are to be believed.  And it’s not just about driving Ubers, delivering food orders and contracting for logistics firms – i.e., working for businesses that exploit the gig economy to drive down labor costs and improve services.  It’s the freelance gig economy where people forge a living writing code, supporting content development, delivering consulting work on-demand etc.  Even that lovely Upwork research admits: “While finances are a challenge for all, freelancers experience a unique concern — income predictability. The study found that, with the ebbs and flows of freelancing, full-time freelancers dip into savings more often (63 percent at least once per month versus 20 percent of full-time non-freelancers)”.  So even if the most biased of sources admits most gig workers can’t cover their living costs, we can conclude that those “Free Agents”, which McKinsey describes as the gig worker sector using gig work as its primary income, are not in a sustainable earning situation.

Today, it’s a buyer’s market for gig work

You only need to spend a little time on LinkedIn to observe just how many people are now marketing their wares as solo free agents, or as part of a company bearing their name.  It’s abundantly clear that so many people have decided to set themselves up as independents, that the market for gig talent is saturated and it’s become a “buyers’ market” for gig work.  Whether I want to commission a crack consultant to validate some RPA software, hire an analyst to endorse my product, commission a writer to produce a white-label assessment of an emerging market, produce a go-to-market strategy for my business, redesign my website, my logo, or just have someone support my business on a part-time basis… today, I am spoiled for choice.  I barely need to hire fulltime employees these days, unless they are truly core to keeping my business ticking along – and I can create real competition to get the work done for much lower costs than a few short years ago.

On top of the risks of commoditizing gig work, we have to contend with the impact of automation and Machine Learning to stay relevant and worthy of earning a paycheck

We’re not in a world rejecting human work, but a world where work is rapidly changing – and the skills of the dynamic middle manager has never been so important. In short, the increasing availability of computing power to crunch massive amounts of data, coupled with advancing tools to tag and label data and workflow clusters with breakthrough programming in languages such as Python for syntax and R for data visualization, are the game-changers that will increasingly impact how we get work done, as we develop continually smarter algorithms to keep teaching computers to do the work of the human brain.

What's more, the rapid development of Machine Learning (ML) environments such as Google's TensorFlow, the Microsoft's Azure Machine Learning Workbench, Amazon's Sagemaker, Caffe and Alibaba’s Aliyun are becoming the new environments driving armies of coders and developers to align themselves with ML value - desperate to stay relevant (and well paid) against the headwinds of commoditization of legacy coding and app development.

As ML takes over judgment and (eventually) intuition, the human-value onus moves to interaction, agenda-setting, problem defining and idea generation

In short, the disruptive ML techniques are teaching computers to do what comes naturally to humans: to learn by example. Today’s emerging ML tools use massive amounts of data and computing power to simulate neural networks that imitate the human brain’s connectivity, classifying data sets and finding patterns and correlations between them.

Net-net, pattern-matching jobs are increasingly being affected by ML – vocations such as radiologists, pathologists, financial advisors, lawyers, procurement executives, accountants etc. are all being challenged as judgment work is (gradually) being replaced by smart algorithms.  However, as elements of these types of jobs are being affected, other job elements become even more important, namely interacting with other humans, creating, setting the agenda, defining and finding the problems to go after.  They motivate, they persuade, they negotiate, they coordinate. They are the dynamic conduits of driving information and ideas in an organization and will be increasingly in the driving seat as Machine Learning advancements increasingly take hold.  The digital middle manager who can bring a team together and lead people in the right direction does not exist and likely never will…. I’d be amazed if we saw one emerge soon.

Fulltime employment is now becoming a premium situation

Having predictability of income, healthcare costs covered, guaranteed paid vacation time - and a constant supply of work to do - is fast becoming the dream scenario for the disgruntled gig worker.  So here’s a thought – go get a JOB.  Or if you’re in a job and wanted to try the gig work thing… spare a thought for what your ideal situation looks like, because last time I looked, most firms are doing everything they can to avoid hiring well-paid staff… especially if they can get the work done much cheaper from desperate gig workers.

The Bottom-Line: Five steps to keeping your job:

i) Become the conduit of ideas and information that is irreplaceable right across your organization. So we’ve now come full circle, where the value of having people really close to the business is becoming more important than ever, as computers perform more and more of the routine and judgement based tasks. To the point, the value of the full-time employee goes both ways: companies need people who really understand their institutional processes, their quirks and ways of getting things done… who are onhand to troubleshoot mistakes, but also there to keep the ideas flowing to keep the business ahead of its competition and close to its customers.  “Human middleware” is becomimg the real OneOffice glue to break down those siloes and help govern a slick business operation from front to back office.

ii) Develop a positive attitude by finding aspects of your job you do like.  Your full time job is likely the best gig-work you will probably ever get, so even if you hate your boss and most of your colleagues, ask yourself if you’d prefer scrapping around for the boring work other companies prefer to outsource.  Focus on the interesting stuff you can do and keep reminding yourself that the grass is rarely greener elsewhere.  Unless you are a whizz at Python development, the chances are your job-hopping days are numbered and you need to figure out how to stay put and make it better for yourself.

iii) Motivate yourself and become a real motivator.  Being motivated - and helping to motivate others - is probably the least computerizable trait of all.  If you aren’t motivated, you are placing yourself at risk when your leadership assess which of their team then want to take them forward into the future.  If you really can’t get yourself excited about what you do, or your company just demotivates you in such a way you can’t dig yourself out of your rut, then you may need to take that Python course and brush up your resume…

iv) Let the computers take the lead and become the controller to fix mistakes double checking, intervening when the computers do something dumb.    Humans and computers make different kinds of mistakes, so we really need to bring humans and computers together intelligently to cancel out each other’s mistakes. Fighting automation and ML is a lost cause, especially when your firm is completely bought in to the concept and it rolling out bots and working on developing smart algorithms.  Just let these things take the lead and them figure out how to make them functional and monitor their errors, ad computers will always keep making them.  You can’t fight innovation, but you can nurture it, manage it and troubleshoot it.  

v) Find your pareto balance and stop whining. Nothing in life including your current or prospective employer will be perfect. Focus on the 80% that is right, versus making yourself (and others around you) miserable by the other 20%. There is rarely a perfect fit where workers only get to focus 100% on all the things they love to do… there has to be this 80/20 compromise, or you will be forever hopping around trying to find a workplace nirvana that doesn’t exist.  And it today’s social world your reputation follows you around like never before… and employers are steering clear of the whiners at all costs.

Posted in: Design ThinkingDigital TransformationHR Strategy



Happy 2018 all! Remember never to give up trying folks...

December 31, 2017 | Phil Fersht

Posted in: Absolutely Meaningless Comedy



Wishful dreams for 2018: fixing our societies, our politics and our taxes

December 23, 2017 | Phil Fersht


With our governments going broke and looking to go even broker, here is my simple wish-list to fix our endemic societal issues, and recoup some much needed tax income, so we can start dreaming about things like improving disastrous education and health services…

Trump is gone ...and a new political party emerges in the US that isn’t controlled by greedy corporations and corruptible misogynist dinosaurs. The American voters go back to voting on policies, not stereotypes and hatred.  Wouldn’t that just be so awesome? Is it illegal to dream these days?

Britain finally gives up on Brexit, realizing that changing the color of passports from red to blue doesn’t make up for trashing the country’s economic future and hurtling it back into the 1970s.  Please can we all just admit there is not one single good thing about Brexit for any living being, so we can just consign the whole thing to the time-capsule of bad ideas, along with communism, dodgeball and the George Foreman grill. Bad ideas are OK, as long as we admit later they were bad ideas…

Political leaders finally realize that smartphone addiction is the worst disease to affect society since cigarettes and booze. In fact, it’s worse – they could fund entire health, military and education programs taxing booze and ciggies, but with smartphones, all the money is now getting sucked offshore somewhere, and into Mark Zuckerberg’s and Jeff Bezo’s bank accounts.

Re-open pubs and bad discos. Back in the pre-smartphone era, our social world was centered on bad pubs and even worse dance floors. Yes, we had to get drunk and make idiots out of ourselves to meet people and get married… now it’s just swipe left or right, a few photos and you’re all done.  Where did all the “fun” go?  Can’t governments declare what’s left of our pubs as places of national heritage and conserve what we have left of life before Instagram?  Is the joy of youth consigned to sharing bad selfies and playing online video games alone in their bedrooms?

Tax gym memberships.  What was wrong with a few extra pounds and a beer gut?  Now, if you don’t have a perfect six-pack on your chest, rather than in your fridge, you’re not exacty making friends like you used to… where did all the fun go?  Not sure about you, but I don’t have much energy left for socializing after 45 mins on the treadmill and benchpressing 130lbs, so I might as well donate the $20 I should be spending on booze to the government to fund the reopening of classic pubs.

Tax anyone trying to buy Bitcoin.  Just because.

Tax vendors double for sponsoring every ropy conference under the sun. They’re wasting their money in any case, so why not make them do something useful with it?

Place income tax on robots. This will end the inane conversation about “digital” labor, as everyone goes out of their way to call it something else, like workflow efficiency… which is what it really always was, right?

Tax vendors for using the term “digital” in their marketing.  Why not make some use out of a meaningless overused term…

Tax #fakenews.  Forget the detritus of Obamacare, this will fund a whole new health system, right? 

Tax bloggers for writing opinionated blogs, because they think they can.  Make them realize there’s no such thing as free opinion these days…

The Bottom-line: As we near the end of a ridiculous year, we can all dream, can't we?  

Happy holidays all =)

Posted in: Absolutely Meaningless Comedy



Save the Date: New York, March 7-8 for the flagship FORA Summit "Learning to Change"

December 22, 2017 | Phil Fersht

Dear Friends,

On behalf of the HfS analyst team and global community, I am delighted to announce our flagship FORA summit taking place this coming March 7th and 8th at Convene, Times Square, Manhattan, New York City. 

This will span the entire two days with the theme "Learning to Change" dominating the conversation.  The tech is here and is being proven, but are we really, truly ready to disrupt our underlying corporate DNA to exploit it to its full potential? Can we really change how we operate, think, collaborate and focus to embrace the new wave of data-driven transformation that is engulfing us?

Key Topics up for Debate:

Intelligent Automation in Practice (not theory); Blockchain demystified; Emerging Sourcing Models and the Digital OneOffice; The Emergence of the Chief Data Officer; Making Change Management actually work.

Key Speakers and Panelists:

  • Tim Leberecht (Author of the Business Romantic); Tony Saldanha (VP, IT and GBS P&G); Phil Fersht (CEO, HfS Research);  Mike Salvino (Pioneer behind Accenture Operations and a key investment partner for Carrick Capital); Larry Carin, Professor of Computer Engineering, Duke University (More to follow.... 
  • CEOs of the leading Intelligent Automation software firms and IT/BPM service providers
  • Key enterprise leaders managing data, automation, global business services and operations initiatives
  • HfS analysts spanning emerging technologies, industries and sourcing solutions.

Why FORA is Special:

The worlds of software providers, business operations leaders, and services providers have always been chasms apart – different mindsets, vernaculars, conversations, ideas of what constitutes value – and vastly different cultures. At FORA, we are bringing together these diverse groups of people to rethink completely how we run global operations in this robotically digital era, to debate the challenges and opportunities posed by automation, AI, analytics, blockchain, global talent on our business operations and our careers.

If you have further questions regarding FORA, how you can attend, sponsor, speak, or just make suggestions, please drop us a note at [email protected]

I hope to see many of you in NYC,


Posted in: Analytics and Big DataBusiness Process Outsourcing (BPO)IT Outsourcing / IT Services